Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney
Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, Lord of Roslin (c. 1345 – c. 1400) was a Scottish and a Norwegian nobleman. Sinclair held the title Earl of Orkney (which refers to Norðreyjar rather than just the islands of Orkney) under the King of Norway. He was sometimes identified by another spelling of his surname, St. Clair. He was the grandfather of William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness, the builder of Rosslyn Chapel. He was best known today because of a modern legend that he took part in explorations of Greenland and North America almost 100 years before Christopher Columbus. William Thomson, in his book The New History of Orkney, wrote: “It has been Earl Henry’s singular fate to enjoy an ever-expanding posthumous reputation which has very little to do with anything he achieved in his lifetime.”
William P.L. Thomson,The New History of Orkney (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2008). “Orkneyjar – Earl Henry Sinclair”. Retrieved 13 December 2015. Douglas, Sir Robert (1764). The Peerage of Scotland. Edinburgh: R. Fleming. p. 531. Retrieved 7 February 2021. Crawford, Barbara E. “William Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, and His Family: A Study in the Politics of Survival” in Stringer, K. J. Essays on the Nobility of Medieval Scotland Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers, 2004. ISBN1904607454. p. 234. “Orkneyjar – Earl Henry Sinclair – The Documented History”. Retrieved 13 December 2015. Saint-Clair, Roland William (1898). The Saint-Clairs of the Isles; being a history of the sea-kings of Orkney and their Scottish successors of the sirname of Sinclair. Shortland Street, Auckland, New Zealand: H. Brett. pp. 96–102. Retrieved 8 February 2021. Paul, James Balfour (1909). The Scots Peerage. VI. Edinburgh: David Douglas. pp. 568–69. Retrieved 8 February 2021. Burke, Bernard (1869). Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire. 59 Pall Mall, London: Harrison. p. 1016. Retrieved 14 June 2021. Authén Blom, Grethe (1992). Norge I Union på 1300-tallet Del II. Tapir Forlag. pp. 480, 533. ISBN8251911176. Paul, James Balfour (1909). The Scots Peerage : Founded on Wood’s ed. of Sir Robert Douglas’s Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom. VI. Edinburgh: David Douglas. p. 568–70. Retrieved 12 June 2021. Charter of King Robert III January 1404. Paul, James Balfour (1904–1919). The Scots Peerage: Founded on Wood’s ed. of Sir Robert Douglas’s Peerage of Scotland. Edinburgh: Douglas. pp. 569–70. Retrieved 19 January 2019. Johann Reinhold Forster, History of the Voyages and Discoveries Made in the North, Printed for G.G.J. and J. Robinson, London, 1786 T. J. Oleson, “ZENO, NICOLÒ,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 1, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed 1 October 2014 Knight & Lomas, The Hiram Key: Pharaohs, Freemasonry, and The Discovery of The Secret Scrolls of Jesus (London: Century, 1996 ISBN0712685790). Timothy Wallace-Murphy, Marilyn Hopkins, Templars in America: From The Crusades to the New World (Red Wheel/Weiser, 2004 ISBN1578633176). Historian Mark Oxbrow, quoted in “The ship of dreams” by Diane MaClean, Scotsman.com, 13 May 2005 Holy Grail in America[permanent dead link]History Channel press release for Holy Grail in America Frederick J. Pohl, Prince Henry Sinclair: His Expedition to the New World in 1398 (London: Davis-Poynter, 1974; and published in America by Clarkson Potter, 1974). Andrew Sinclair, The Sword and the Grail – The Story of the Grail, the Templars and the True Discovery of America (New York: Crown Publishers, 1992). Michael Bradley Grail Knights of North America: On The Trail of the Grail Legacy in Canada and the United States (Hounslow Press: Toronto, 1998) and his earlier Holy Grail Across the Atlantic: The Secret History of Canadian Discovery and Exploration (Hounslow: 1988) William S. Crooker Tracking Treasure – In Search of East Coast Bounty (Halifax, N.S., Nimbus, 1998). Steven Sora, The Lost Colony of The Templars: Verrazano’s Secret Mission To America (Destiny Books, 2004). David Goudsward, The Westford Knight and Henry Sinclair: Evidence of a 14th Century Scottish Voyage To North America (McFarland & Company, 2010). Adriano Cappelli, Lexicon Abbreviaturarum. Dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiane, usate nelle arte e codici specialmente del medio-evo, riprodotto con oltre 14,000 segni incisi… Milano, 1949 Simon Jenkins, The Guardian, Friday 20 January 2006 Christopher Knight & Robert Lomas, The Second Messiah: Templars, the Turin Shroud and the Great Secret of Freemasonry, Fair Winds Press, 2001. ISBN1931412766Scotsman.com Heritage & Culture – Myths & Mysteries, 10 November 2005. “Rosslyn, Templars, Gypsies and the Battle of Bannockburn”. Retrieved 13 December 2015. “Origins of Freemasonry”. Retrieved 13 December 2015. The claim that Hugues de Payens married Catherine St. Clair was made in Les Dossiers Secrets d’Henri Lobineau (1967), “Tableau Généalogique de Gisors, Guitry, Mareuil et Saint-Clair par Henri Lobineau” in Pierre Jarnac, Les Mystères de Rennes-le-Château, Mélanges Sulfureux (CERT, 1995). Thierry Leroy, Hugues de Payns, chevalier champenois, fondateur de l’ordre des templiers (Troyes: edition de la Maison Boulanger, 1997). “The Da Vinci Connection”, Sunday Herald, 14 November 2004Archived 6 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine“Historian attacks Rosslyn Chapel for”. Retrieved 13 December 2015. Karen Ralls, The Templars and the Grail, Quest Books; 1st Quest edition (2003), p. 110. ISBN0835608077; The Knights Templar in England, pp. 200f. Processus factus contra Templarios in ScotiaArchived 17 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine, 1309, being the testimony against the Templars by Henry and William St Clair, translation available in Mark Oxbrow, Ian Robertson, Rosslyn and the Grail, p. 245–256.