Cumberland Academy

TRAIL OF TEARS to TRAIL OF HOPE Amerindians – Indiana Territory

Please visit Polly’s blog and thank her for sharing this history

Surname Saturday – The Cherokee Fishers

My great great great grandfather, Johnson Fisher, was the first generation of my Fisher ancestors to use that surname. On the 1852 Drennen Roll, he was listed simply as Johnson. His father was listed as Fisher. No surnames were attached to either of them. By the time the two men enlisted and fought with the 3rd Regiment of the Indian Home Guard, they were using the names Fisher Hatchet and Johnson Fisher. As you can see, Johnson Fisher took the first name of his father as his surname. This was a common practice among the Cherokees when asked for a surname. Since he was Johnson, the son of Fisher, he became Johnson Fisher on records recorded by English speakers. Later, when the children of Johnson Fisher applied for the Guion Miller Roll, each stated the name of their father was Johnson Fisher and the name of their paternal grandfather was Fisher Hatchet.

To people who are used to researching their ancestors who always used both a given name and a surname, they assume it is nearly impossible to trace Cherokee ancestry. This is not true. There are many records of the citizens of the Cherokee Nation. Sometimes family groups are listed on the rolls or censuses. The Old Settler Payment rolls list the names of a person’s heirs and the relationship the heir had to the original payee. The Guion Miller applications often have both the Cherokee and English names of the parents and grandparents of the applicant. Sometimes even the names of aunts, uncles and cousins are listed.

Often times, people will claim to have Cherokee ancestry but then say they can’t prove it because there are no records. Hopefully by sharing the history of my Cherokee surname Fisher, I have helped dispell that myth. I have tried to show how our Cherokee ancestors can be traced, even when the family did not follow the traditional naming conventions of the English. It may take a little more time and require a little more work, but Cherokee genealogy is not impossible.

Those are my thoughts for the day.
Thank you for reading.

The Granddaughter
copyright 2009, Polly’s Granddaughter – TCB



The Tsalagi People were one of many communities from the coastal regions of continental  Africa, to the shores of Bharhut, (India) that suffered from the brutal attacks of European invaders called Conqistadors! This became a time when the original people of Earth were being forced to alter their cultural and traditional lifestyles to preserving Mother Earth as planned and ordered by”Unehlanuhi,” The Great Soul!

TRAIL of tears registry

Trail of Tears List

A sample of relations included on the registry:

Indiana (/ˌɪndiˈænə/ (listen)) is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States. It is the 38th-largest by area and the 17th-most populous of the 50 United States. Its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th state on December 11, 1816. It is bordered by Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, the Ohio River and Kentucky to the south and southeast, and the Wabash River and Illinois to the west.

Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States; the state’s northernmost tier was settled primarily by people from New England and New York, Central Indiana by migrants from the Mid-Atlantic states and adjacent Ohio, and Southern Indiana by settlers from the Upland South, particularly Kentucky and Tennessee.[6]

In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.[16] He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, jewelry, tools, whiskey and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans.

By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River.

In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result.

The Native American tribes of Indiana sided with the French Canadians during the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years’ War). With British victory in 1763, the French were forced to cede to the British crown all their lands in North America east of the Mississippi River and north and west of the colonies.

The tribes in Indiana did not give up: they captured Fort Ouiatenon and Fort Miami during Pontiac’s Rebellion. The British royal proclamation of 1763 designated the land west of the Appalachians for Native American use, and excluded British colonists from the area, which the Crown called “Indian Territory”.

In 1775, the American Revolutionary War began as the colonists sought self-government and independence from the British. The majority of the fighting took place near the East Coast, but the Patriot military officer George Rogers Clark called for an army to help fight the British in the west.[17] Clark’s army won significant battles and took over Vincennes and Fort Sackville on February 25, 1779.[18]

During the war, Clark managed to cut off British troops, who were attacking the eastern colonists from the west. His success is often credited for changing the course of the American Revolutionary War.[19] At the end of the war, through the Treaty of Paris, the British crown ceded their claims to the land south of the Great Lakes to the newly formed United States, including Native American lands.

occupied from 1100 to 1450.

The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BCE after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large game such as mastodons. They created stone tools made out of chert by chipping, knapping and flaking.[15]

The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization. These new tools included different types of spear points and knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as stone axes, woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed settlements were becoming more permanent. The Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC.[15]

The Woodland period began around 1500 BC when new cultural attributes appeared. The people created ceramics and pottery and extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began to develop long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed highly productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash. The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD.[15]

The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces. The concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds. They had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear.[15]

The historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee, Miami, and Illini. Refugee tribes from eastern regions, including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys, later joined them.


In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.[16] He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, jewelry, tools, whiskey and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans.

By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River.

In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result.

The Native American tribes of Indiana sided with the French Canadians during the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years’ War). With British victory in 1763, the French were forced to cede to the British crown all their lands in North America east of the Mississippi River and north and west of the colonies.

The tribes in Indiana did not give up: they captured Fort Ouiatenon and Fort Miami during Pontiac’s Rebellion. The British royal proclamation of 1763 designated the land west of the Appalachians for Native American use, and excluded British colonists from the area, which the Crown called “Indian Territory”.

In 1775, the American Revolutionary War began as the colonists sought self-government and independence from the British. The majority of the fighting took place near the East Coast, but the Patriot military officer George Rogers Clark called for an army to help fight the British in the west.[17] Clark’s army won significant battles and took over Vincennes and Fort Sackville on February 25, 1779.[18]

During the war, Clark managed to cut off British troops, who were attacking the eastern colonists from the west. His success is often credited for changing the course of the American Revolutionary War.[19] At the end of the war, through the Treaty of Paris, the British crown ceded their claims to the land south of the Great Lakes to the newly formed United States, including Native American lands.

In 1787, the US defined the Northwest Territory which included the area of present-day Indiana. In 1800, Congress separated Ohio from the Northwest Territory, designating the rest of the land as the Indiana Territory.[20] President Thomas Jefferson chose William Henry Harrison as the governor of the territory, and Vincennes was established as the capital.[21] After the Michigan Territory was separated and the Illinois Territory was formed, Indiana was reduced to its current size and geography.[20]

Starting with the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 and the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, Native American titles to Indiana lands were extinguished by usurpation, purchase, or war and treaty. About half the state was acquired in the Treaty of St. Mary’s from the Miami in 1818. Purchases were not complete until the Treaty of Mississinewas in 1826 acquired the last of the reserved Native American lands in the northeast.

A portrait of the Indiana frontier about 1810: The frontier was defined by the Treaty of Fort Wayne in 1809, adding much of the southwestern lands around Vincennes and southeastern lands adjacent to Cincinnati, to areas along the Ohio River as part of U.S. territory. Settlements were military outposts such as Fort Ouiatenon in the northwest and Fort Miami (later Fort Wayne) in the northeast, Fort Knox and Vincennes settlement on the lower Wabash. Other settlements included Clarksville (across from Louisville), Vevay, and Corydon along the Ohio River, the Quaker Colony in Richmond on the eastern border, and Conner’s Post (later Connersville) on the east central frontier. Indianapolis would not be populated for 15 more years, and central and northern Indiana Territory remained wilderness populated primarily by Indigenous communities. Only two counties in the extreme southeast, Clark and Dearborn, had been organized by European settlers. Land titles issued out of Cincinnati were sparse. Settler migration was chiefly via flatboat on the Ohio River westerly, and by wagon trails up the Wabash/White River Valleys (west) and Whitewater River Valleys (east).

In 1810, the Shawnee tribal chief Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa encouraged other indigenous tribes in the territory to resist European settlement. Tensions rose and the US authorized Harrison to launch a preemptive expedition against Tecumseh’s Confederacy; the US gained victory at the Battle of Tippecanoe on November 7, 1811. Tecumseh was killed in 1813 during the Battle of Thames. After his death, armed resistance to United States control ended in the region. Most Native American tribes in the state were later removed to west of the Mississippi River in the 1820s and 1830s after US negotiations and the purchase of their lands.[22]

Corydon, a town in the far southern part of Indiana, was named the second capital of the Indiana Territory in May 1813 in order to decrease the threat of Native American raids following the Battle of Tippecanoe.[20] Two years later, a petition for statehood was approved by the territorial general assembly and sent to Congress. An Enabling Act was passed to provide an election of delegates to write a constitution for Indiana. On June 10, 1816, delegates assembled at Corydon to write the constitution, which was completed in 19 days. Jonathan Jennings was elected the fledgling state’s first governor in August 1816. President James Madison approved Indiana’s admission into the union as the nineteenth state on December 11, 1816.[18] In 1825, the state capital was moved from Corydon to Indianapolis.[20]

Many European immigrants went west to settle in Indiana in the early 19th century. The largest immigrant group to settle in Indiana were Germans, as well as many immigrants from Ireland and England. Americans who were primarily ethnically English migrated from the Northern Tier of New York and New England, as well as from the mid-Atlantic state of Pennsylvania.[24][25] The arrival of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811, and the National Road at Richmond in 1829, greatly facilitated settlement of northern and western Indiana.

Following statehood, the new government worked to transform Indiana from a frontier into a developed, well-populated, and thriving state, beginning significant demographic and economic changes. In 1836, the state’s founders initiated a program, the Indiana Mammoth Internal Improvement Act, that led to the construction of roads, canals, railroads and state-funded public schools. The plans bankrupted the state and were a financial disaster, but increased land and produce value more than fourfold.[26] In response to the crisis and in order to avert another, in 1851, a second constitution was adopted. Among its provisions were a prohibition on public debt, as well as the extension of suffrage to African-Americans.

Civil War and late 19th century industryEdit

Main article: Indiana in the American Civil War

During the American Civil War, Indiana became politically influential and played an important role in the affairs of the nation. Indiana was the first western state to mobilize for the United States in the war, and soldiers from Indiana participated in all the war’s major engagements. The state provided 126 infantry regiments, 26 batteries of artillery and 13 regiments of cavalry to the Union.[27]

In 1861, Indiana was assigned a quota of 7,500 men to join the Union Army.[28] So many volunteered in the first call that thousands had to be turned away. Before the war ended, Indiana had contributed 208,367 men. Casualties were over 35% among these men: 24,416 lost their lives and over 50,000 more were wounded.[29] The only Civil War conflicts fought in Indiana were the Newburgh Raid, a bloodless capture of the city; and the Battle of Corydon, which occurred during Morgan’s Raid leaving 15 dead, 40 wounded, and 355 captured.[30]

After the war, Indiana remained a largely agricultural state. Post-war industries included mining, including limestone extraction; meatpacking; food processing, such as milling grain, distilling it into alcohol; and the building of wagons, buggies, farm machinery, and hardware.[31] However, the discovery of natural gas in the 1880s in northern Indiana led to an economic boom: the abundant and cheap fuel attracted heavy industry; the availability of jobs, in turn, attracted new settlers from other parts of the country as well as from Europe.[32] This led to the rapid expansion of cities such as South Bend, Gary, Indianapolis, and Fort Wayne.[31]


1. Elevations and Distances in the United States”. United States Geological Survey.

31. House. pp. 343–344. “Indiana History Part 8 – Indiana Industrialization”. Archived from the original on July 7, 2010. Retrieved April 20, 2019.

Illinois Ameridians

1818 December 03

Illinois becomes the 21st state

Illinois achieves full statehood on this day. Though Illinois presented unique challenges to immigrants unaccustomed to the soil and vegetation of the area, it grew to become a bustling and densely populated state.

The prairie lands east of the Mississippi and west of Lake Michigan presented a difficult challenge to the tide of westward-moving immigrants. Accustomed to the heavily forested lands of states like Kentucky and Tennessee, the early immigrants to Illinois did not know what to make of the vast treeless stretches of the prairie. Most pioneers believed that the fertility of soil revealed itself by the abundance of vegetation it supported, so they assumed that the lack of trees on the prairie signaled inferior farmland. Those brave souls who did try to farm the prairie found that their flimsy plows were inadequate to cut through prairie sod thickly knotted with deep roots. In an “age of wood,” farmers also felt helpless without ready access to the trees they needed for their tools, homes, furniture, fences, and fuel. For all these reasons, most of the early Illinois settlers remained in the southern part of the state, where they built homes and farms near the trees that grew along the many creek and river bottoms.

The challenge of the prairies slowed emigration into the region; when Illinois was granted statehood in 1818, the population was only about 35,000, and most of the prairie was still largely unsettled. Gradually, though, a few tough Illinois farmers took on the difficult task of plowing the prairie and discovered that the soil was far richer than they had expected. The development of heavy prairie plows and improved access to wood and other supplies through new shipping routes encouraged even more farmers to head out into the vast northern prairie lands of Illinois.

By 1840, the center of population in Illinois had shifted decisively to the north, and the once insignificant hamlet of Chicago rapidly became a bustling city. The four giant prairie counties of northern Illinois, which were the last to be settled, boasted population densities of 18 people per square mile. Increasingly recognized as one of the nation’s most fertile agricultural areas, the vast emptiness of the Illinois prairie was eagerly conquered by both pioneers and plows.

Citation Information

Article Title

Illinois becomes the 21st state

Author Editors

Website Name



Access Date

June 25, 2021


A&E Television Networks


Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi cede lands in northern Illinois by treaty at Prairie du Chien.


Black Hawk War ends with Sauk and Fox Indians leaving the Illinois lands they had ceded in 1804.


Treaty of Chicago provides for United States acquisition and settlement of the last remaining Indian lands in Illinois.


  • Cherokee Indians pass through southern Illinois on the “Trail of Tears” to Oklahoma.
  • Springfield becomes the state capital.
  • Nation
  • al Road is completed from Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia.


  • Civil War begins; Cairo becomes a troop and supply center for the Union Army.


  • Lincoln is reelected President


  • General Assembly is the first state legislature to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery.
  • Lincoln is assassinated in Washington, D.C.; buried in Springfield.
  • Chicago Union Stock Yards ope


  • Grand Army of the Republic is established in Decatur; the first GAR convention is held in Springfield.

Cherokee Genealogy

Be open-minded about family stories that may have been passed down. You must accept that there may have been errors as the story was retold. Otherwise a small mistake could waste a great deal of time and end in frustration. Here’s a few reasons why.

  • Cherokee ancestors may be found on the rolls of other tribes.
  • Many intermarried whites (spouses) were later removed from the rolls.
  • Sadly, ancestors from over 500 tribes are often called Cherokee in family lore.
  • At times other tribes were included as part of the Cherokee Nation, and later separated again.
  • Cherokee were sometimes listed as “white” or “mulatto” on U.S. government censuses, or not included at all.
  • A spouse and even children didn’t always take the surname of their parent.
  • Because names were often written as they sounded to an English ear, there is wide variation in recorded names.

The good news is that a great deal of genealogical information was collected, verified, and backed up by witness testimony when the government setout to break up the tribe. In deciding who would be eligible for an allotment of Cherokee land, this information was used to decide who was considered a Cherokee. That wealth of knowledge can make your task much easier.

Some history you should know about your ancestors

The Cherokee were not originally one tribe but were separated into bands by geographic features and language dialects. They were only brought into some sort of unity when the English, weary from dealing with so many “heads of state”, withheld vital trade goods until the Cherokees selected an “Emperor”, through whom the British could deal. The person crowned as “Emperor” of the Cherokee was called Moytoy.

The five Chickamauga Cherokee were in the towns of Runningwater, Nickajack, Chickamauga, Tinsawatie, and Elijay were closely aligned with the Spanish and fought with other Cherokee who were friendly with the British. The Chickamauga gave in after their leader was assassinated. But the Americans wanted to punish the Cherokee who had sided with the British and began to grab land.  

Around 1790 some Cherokee decided to leave the area and set up their tribal government west of the Mississippi. They settled in the area of Arkansas and begin to make treaties with the United States. These Western Cherokee are known as the Old Settlers. For the next 30 years, the government took more and more land while pressuring the Eastern Cherokee to move west also. At the same time, those Cherokee families in west pleaded with the Easterners to join them.

Another group of Cherokee headed by Chief Drowning Bear split from the rest of the tribe and settled in North Carolina. These are the Cherokee who avoided the Cherokee removal known as the Trail of Tears. Today these are known as the Eastern Band.

The Old Settlers soon realized that the mixed-blood Cherokee who had arrived were beginning to take control. Two white missionaries, Evan and John Jones helped Cherokee full bloods Pig Smith and Creek Sam to form the traditionalist Keetoowah Society. As the American civil war approached the Keetoowah were allied with the missionaries against slavery and separated from the slaveholding mixed bloods. 

Stand Watie, a Cherokee Confederate General, Treaty party leader, and relative of the Treaty party leaders who were assassinated pressured mixed blood Chief John Ross into siding with the confederacy. He and his troops rampaged through the Cherokee country killing, pillaging and burning the homes of those he blamed for his relative’s deaths. After the war the Cherokee were split by so many elements that it barely survived. The Keetoowah led by Pig Smith’s son Redbird became a secret society called the Nighthawks.

 Today the Cherokee are divided into three federally recognized tribes. The Eastern Band, the Cherokee Nation and the Keetoowah.

The Eastern Band

The Eastern Band of Cherokees traces its origin to the more than 1,000 Cherokee members who eluded forced movement westward in 1838-39 by remaining in the mountains. Approximately 300 of these individuals were living on tribal lands in 1838 and claimed U.S. citizenship. Other tribal members living in Tennessee and North Carolina towns were not immediately found and removed. Throughout much of the 1840s Federal agents searched the mountains of North Carolina in attempts to remove the refugees to the Indian Territory. By 1848, however, the U.S. Congress agreed to recognize the North Carolina Cherokees’ rights as long as the state would recognize them as permanent residents. The state did not do so until almost 20 years later. The area called the Qualla Boundary was established in 1882. The Eastern Cherokee land consists of approximately 56,668 acres in five counties in North Carolina: Cherokee, Graham, Jackson, Macon, and Swain Counties.

Cherokee residing in the east after the western migration of the majority of the Cherokee Nation (see Cherokee Removal) filed three suits in the U.S. Court of Claims to press their claims for funds due them under their treaties of 1835, 1836, and 1845 with the United States. The court awarded more than 1 million dollars to be distributed to all Eastern Cherokee alive on 28 May 1906, who could prove that they were members of the Eastern Cherokee tribe at the time of the treaties. They also had to prove that they were descended from members who had not been subsequently affiliates with any other tribe. These suits resulted in the Guion-Miller roll, the applications of the Cherokee East of the Mississippi, and the Cherokees of North Carolina.

 The Western or Oklahoma Cherokee (Cherokee Nation)

An act of Congress approved March 3, 1893, established a commission to negotiate agreements with the Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, Seminole, and Cherokee Indian tribes. The commission became known as the Dawes Commission, after its chairman Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts. The commission’s mission was to divide tribal land into plots which were then divided among the members of the tribe. As part of this process, the Commission either accepted or rejected applicants for tribal membership based on whether the tribal government had previously recognized the applicant as a member of the tribe and other legal requirements. Applicants were categorized as Citizens by Blood, Citizens by Marriage, Minor Citizens by Blood, New Born Citizens by Blood, Freedmen (African Americans formerly enslaved by tribal members), New Born Freedmen, and Minor Freedmen. Learn more about the Dawes rolls and see examples at left.

The United Keetoowah Band

Mostly descendants of “Old Settlers”, Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817, before the forced relocation of Cherokee from the Southeast in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act. Many of its members are traditionalists and Baptists. The United Keetoowah Band requires all members to have verifiable Cherokee descent either from a person or people on the Dawes Roll or the UKB Base Roll of 1949. The UKB, beginning in the 1970s, gave some people honorary associate members, to recognize their services to the nation. Such memberships did not entitle the persons to voting or any other tribal rights, and had nothing to do with claims of Cherokee ancestry. Associate memberships were given in honorary appreciation to several people, but the tribe ended this practice in 1994. While some such recipients were given a tribal enrollment card with a number, they were never considered official members of the tribe, and did not receive tribal benefits. They no longer appear on official tribal rolls.

The Clan

Traditionally the Cherokees were a matrilineal society. The home, family, children, inheritance, family ties, and clan membership are under the absolute control of the women. Women were considered the head of household among the Cherokee, with the home and children belonging to her should she separate from a husband, and maternal uncles were considered more important than fathers. Property was inherited and bequeathed through the clan and held in common by it. It was forbidden to marry within one’s clan or to someone in the clan of one’s father. A Cherokee could marry into any of the clans except two, that to which his father belonged, for all of that clan were his fathers and aunts and that to which his mother belonged, for all of that clan are his brothers and sisters. Interclan marriage was considered incest and punishable by death at the hands of the offender’s own clan.

Cherokee born outside of a clan or outsiders who were taken into the tribe in ancient times had to be adopted into a clan by a clan mother. If the person was a woman who had borne a Cherokee child and was married to a Cherokee man, she could be taken into a new clan. Her husband was required to leave his clan and live with her in her new clan. Men who were not Cherokee and married into a Cherokee household had to be adopted into a clan by a clan mother; he could not take his wife’s clan. 

Stand Watie

Oo-wa-tie was born December 12, 1806 and given the Cherokee name of Degadoga, meaning “he stands”. When baptized by the Moravian missionaries he received a “Christian name” of Isaac S. Watie, but was known as Stand Watie. 

Stand Watie was the only Native American to attain a general‘s rank in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Early in 1861, he  organized a company to cooperate with the confederacy.

Watie became the Captain;  Buzzard. First Lieutenant;  Wilson Suagee, Second Lieutenant; Charles Edwin Watie, Third Lieutenant and Henry Forrester, Orderly Sergeant.
Their service was in Delaware District and Neutral Land which was a legal part of that district.

Other companies having been formed, they met near Fort Wayne on July 12, I861 and formed the Cherokee Mounted Rifle regiment and elected the following officers: Colonel Stand Watie; Lieutenant Colonel, Thomas Fox Taylor; Major, Elias Cornelius Boudinot; Adjutant, Charles E. Watie; Quarter Master, George Washington Adair; Commissary, Joseph McMinn Starr, Sr.; Surgeons, Drs. Walter Thompson Adair and William Davis Poison; Chaplain, C. M. Slover; Sergeant Major, George West and Joseph Franklin Thompson.
It has been impossible to obtain a roster of the several companies, but a fragmentary list of them, is included (below) Company A through Company L and partial or fragment lists.

History: Johnson City Tennessee

William Bean, traditionally recognized as Tennessee’s first settler, built his cabin along Boone’s Creek near Johnson City in 1769.[16] In the 1780s, Colonel John Tipton (1730–1813) established a farm (now the Tipton-Haynes State Historic Site) just outside what is now Johnson City. During the State of Franklin movement, Tipton was a leader of the loyalist faction, residents of the region who wanted to remain part of North Carolina rather than form a separate state. In February 1788, an armed engagement took place at Tipton’s farm between Tipton and his men and the forces led by John Sevier, the leader of the Franklin faction.[17]

Founded in 1856 by Henry Johnson as a railroad station called “Johnson’s Depot”,[18] Johnson City became a major rail hub for the Southeast, as three railway lines crossed in the downtown area.[19] In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Johnson City served as headquarters for the narrow gauge East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad (the ET&WNC, nicknamed “Tweetsie”) and the standard gauge Clinchfield Railroad. Both rail systems featured excursion trips through scenic portions of the Blue Ridge Mountains and were engineering marvels of railway construction. The Southern Railway (now Norfolk Southern) also passes through the city.[20]

During the American Civil War, before it was formally incorporated in 1869, the name of the town was briefly changed to “Haynesville” in honor of Confederate Senator Landon Carter Haynes.[21] Henry Johnson’s name was quickly restored following the war, with Johnson elected as the city’s first mayor on January 3, 1870. The town grew rapidly from 1870 until 1890 as railroad and mining interests flourished. However, the national depression of 1893, which caused many railway failures (including the Charleston, Cincinnati and Chicago Railroad or “3-Cs”, a predecessor of the Clinchfield) and a resulting financial panic, halted Johnson City’s boom town momentum.[22]

In 1901, the Mountain Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers (now the U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Center and National Cemetery), Mountain Home, Tennessee[23][24] was created by an act of Congress introduced by Walter P. Brownlow. Construction on this 450-acre (1.8 km2) campus, which was designed to serve disabled Civil War veterans, was completed in 1903 at a cost of $3 million. Before the completion of this facility, the assessed value of the entire town was listed at $750,000. The East Tennessee State Normal School was authorized in 1911 and the new college campus directly across from the National Soldiers Home.[citation needed] Johnson City began growing rapidly and became the fifth-largest city in Tennessee by 1930.[25]

Together with neighboring Bristol, Johnson City was a hotbed for old-time music. It hosted noteworthy Columbia Records recording sessions in 1928 known as the Johnson City Sessions. Native son “Fiddlin’ Charlie” Bowman became a national recording star via these sessions.[26] The Fountain Square area in downtown featured a host of local and traveling street entertainers including Blind Lemon Jefferson.

During the 1920s and the Prohibition era, Johnson City’s ties to the bootlegging activity of the Appalachian Mountains earned the city the nickname of “Little Chicago“.[27] Stories persist that the town was one of several distribution centers for Chicago gang boss Al Capone during Prohibition. Capone had a well-organized distribution network within the southern United States for alcohol smuggling; it shipped his products from the mountain distillers to northern cities. Capone was, according to local lore, a part-time resident of Montrose Court, a luxury apartment complex now listed on the National Register of Historic Places.


16. Paul Hellman, Historical Gazetteer of the United States (Taylor and Francis, 2005), p. 1016.

17. A civil and political history of the state of Tennessee”; by John Haywood


19. Graybeal, Johhny, “Riding the Rails: The Storied History of the ET&WNC Line”Archived

20.  June 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Johnson City Press, April 18, 2005 “The East Tennessee & Western North Carolina Railroad”. Retrieved March 26, 2018. Haskell, Jean. Johnson City.

20. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Accessed: December 25, 2009. “Johnson City is a Typical American City Archived

21. December 17, 2010, at the Wayback Machine“, The Sunday Chronicle (Johnson City), 1922.

22. Center, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Deputy Under Secretary for Operations and Management, Veterans Integrated Service Network 9, James H. Quillen VA Medical.

23. “Mountain Home VA Healthcare System”.

24. “Mountain Home National Cemetery”. National Cemetery Administration.

25. Fifteenth Census of the United States – 1930 – Population: Volume III, Part 2: Montana-Wyoming, p890

26. “Old-Time Music Heritage”, Johnson’s Depot Website

27. “Little Chicago”, Johnson’s Depot Website

CONFEDERATE officers and soldiers

Company A.

Captain Buzzard; First Lt. Wilson Suagee, Second Lt. Charles E. Watie, Third Lt. Dumplin O’Fields, Orderly Sergeant Henry Forrester. Privates: Lucien Burr Bell, Vann Ward, John Ketcher, Alfred Pigeon, Logan Pigeon, Jack Pigeon, Stand Suagee, Archibald Ballard, Edmond Duncan Carey, Olcut Moore, David Moore, John Moore, Jesse Pigeon, Daniel Squirrel, David Suagee, Charles Huss, Joseph Summerfield, Saladin Waite, Charles Lowrey, Thomas Jefferson Woodall, Ned Moore and Jack Squirrel.
Company B.

Captain Robert Calvin Parks, First Lt. Ephriam Vann, Second Lt. Martin Buzzardflopper and Walker A. Daniel, Third Lt. Reese Candy. Privates: David Burkett, James Burkett, James Leon Butler, Red Bird Harris, William Harris, George Harlan, Fishtail, Mitchell Harlan, Cabbage Vann, Coon Vann, Yartunnah Vann, Joseph Vann, Alexander McCoy Rider and Thomas Jetlerson Parks.

Company C.

Captains Daniel Ross Coody, O. H. P. Brewer and Thomas Fox Brewer, First Lt. O. H. P. Brewer and Thomas Fox Brewer, Second Lts. Richard Crossland and William Snow Brewer, Third Lt. Reliford Beck, Orderly Sergeant Joseph Absalom Scales. Privates: James McDaniel Keyes, William Keys, Charles H. Campbell, Robert Taylor Hanks, James Ore, John Joshua Patrick, Wiliam V. Shepherd, Jesse Bean Burgess, John Walker Starr, John W. Jordan, Moses Nivens, John Nivens, Johnson Vann, Perry Andre Riley, George Lowrey, John A. Sevier, John Linder, Emory Ogden Linder McCoy Smith, Julius Caesar Linder, Russell Bean, Frank Smith, Samuel (“Buster”) Smith, John Gunter Lipe’, Thomas Stoneroad, Lorenzo D. Chambus, Charles Drew, John Calhoun Sturdivant, Martin Butler Sturdivant, Archibald Lovett, John Lovett, Bruce Brown, Richard Neal, Frank Pettit, Qinton Osmund, Richard Boggs, Gideon Reynolds, George Reynolds, Michael Hildebrand, Reese Hildebrand, Richard Brewer, Alnion Martin, John Ferguson, William Patrick, Wilborn Vickery, Ellis Starr, James Hood, Benjamin Lafew. Pleasant Bean, Simpson G. Bennett, John Calhoun West, William M. West, James Polk West, Samuel Benge, George Yates, William Vann, William Harris, Michael Spaniard, John Q. Hayes, Surry Eaton Beck, William Beavert, George Kirk, William Beatty, Ellis Beck, Weatherford Beck, Jeffrey Beck, John Porter, Allen Latta, Diver Latta, Rider Whitekiller, Jolly Thornton, William Edwin Brown, Hugh Montgomery McPherson, George Elders, John Rogers, David Hicks, Wilson Boggs, Charles Kirk, Andrew Spaniard, Johnson Sosa, John Tinker, Henry Clay Starr, Johnson Riley, David R. Vann, Stephen Hildebrand, Joseph Martin Hildebrand, Charles Webber, Solomon Hosmer, John Coody, Henry Vann, Daniel Webster Vann, Marcellus Nivens, Joseph Riley, John McLain, James Starr, Lafayette Catron, William Lucas, Noah Scott and Sterling Scott. 

Company D.

Captain James Madison Bell, First Lt. Joseph Martin Lynch, Second Lt. John A. Raper, Third Lt. Pinson England, Orderly Sergeant Hugh .Montgomery Adair. Privates: Lewis Ross Kell, Watie Lafabre, Proctor Landrum, Robert McDaniel, David Moore, Dumplin O’Fields, Johnson O’Flelds, Kiowa Ratliff, Joseph Rogers, Napoleon Rogers, John Tinney, Thomas Tinney, Reuben R. Tyner, Hill Wilkinson, Moses Williams, Franklin Wright, John Talala Kell, Bear Timpson, John Adam.s, Walter Adair West, David McLaughlin, Saladin Watie, Charles Webber, Daniel Webster Vann, Benjamin Franklin Adair, William Penn Adair, David Jarrette Bell, George Bell, John Bell, James Brower, Arseenee, Gesseau Chouteau, Charles Coats, John Coats, Thomas Cox, Chuwalooka, Virgil Crawford, David Davis, Archibald Elliott, George W. Elliott, Walter Elliott, Martin England, Mitchell England, Henry Freshower, Joseph Freshower, Wallace Freshower, Daniel O’Conner Kell and Joseph Kell.
Company E.

Captain Joseph Franklin Thompson, First Lt. Thomas Jefferson McGee, Second Lt. Stand Wawaseet, Third Lt. William Y. H. Foreman, Orderly Sergeant William Adolphus Daniel. Privates: Thompson Fields, Morrison Shoeboots, Stephen Walker, Joshua Daniel, Thomas Daniel, Ansel Green, Runabout Shoemaker, Chuwanosky, Alexander Beamer, Charles Hillian, E. G. Holcomb, Oliver Morris, Vann Ward, George M. Ward, Joseph Bledsoe, Lorenzo Bledsoe, Thomas Bledsoe, Isaac Dick, David McGee, John Shields, William Shields, Lewis Glenn, David Denton, Jack Caldwell, Boot, Moses Buck, Ross Thomas Carey, Caleb Conner, Colston, Corntassel, Broom Cramp, Harry Cramp, Ned Cramp, Riddle Cramp, John Martin Daniel, Marmaduke Daniel, John Davis, Nicholas Deerhead, John Doghead, John Duck, William Eckridge, L. L. Farley, John Pawling, Grasshopper, Stephen Gray Garbarina Hawk, John Hensley, Elam, Richard Fields, Dr. Charles H. Preston, George Fields, George Washington Fields, Ezekiah (“Bud”) Fields, Ezekiah Fields, Albert Morris, John R. McGee, Albert McGee, Albert McGee, Tee-ge-ski, Daniel Miller, George Washington Trout, Oo-ni-quan-na, Jackson Jones, Stand Smith, Richard Pheasant, W. A. Kincade, James Burkett, Bee Marshall, John Marshall, James Horsefly. Ned Jailer, Drewry Jones, James Jones, John Jones, Wilborn Jones, Charles Lisenbe, Washington Lisenbe, Eli Lisenbe, Andrew Miller, John Martin Miller, Joseph Gambold Miller, Thomas Miller, Mouse, Henry Nightkiller, Rock Shirt, James Rogers, Saltface, Lewis Rogers, William Rogers, Rottenman, Flea Smith, Joseph Smith, Stand Smith, Thomas Smith, Shell, Looney Tiger, Bear Timson, Wawaseet, William Webster Weir, Waseeter, James Waseeter, Womankiller, Charles Lowry, Ellis Dick, Luke Blevins, Samuel Palmer, Samuel Bright, Michael Condon, Dusky Rattlinggourd, William Conner Sr., William Conner, Jr., James Humphrey, George Frayser, Leander McGee, Samuel Steele, Elias Reader, Joseph Henry, Thomas Hadley, John Matthis, Joseph Rogers, Hill Wilkerson and David Pogue.

Company F. Not known.
Company G.

Captains George Harlan Starr, Alexander Wofford and Ephriam Martin Adair, First Lts. Jonh Gott, John R. Wright, Ephriam Martin Adair and Joseph McMinn Starr Jr., Second Lts. Alexander Wofford, Ezekial Starr and Joseph Martin Lynch, Third Lts. Thomas Wilkerson, Andrew Cum- mings Johnson and Mark Bean, Orderly Sergeant —— Root, John Henry Danenburg and John R. Vann. Privates: Andrew Alberty, Jesse Clinton Alberty, Cornelius Bean, Mark Bean, William Bean, Releford Beck, Joseph Beck, Samuel E. Beck, James Blake, Jesse Adair, John Alexander, Jonathan Bullington, John W. Bumgarner, James Carselowry, Cornelius Clyne, Joel M. B. Clyne, William Collins, Virgil Crawford, Charles Crittenden, Wellington Crittenden, John Henry Danenburg, William Danenburg, John Denton, William Henry Drew, George Washington Crittenden, James Crittenden, Ignacious Few, Elias Gourd Foreman, George Gott, William Gott, John Gritiin, John Brown (“Oce”) Harlan, Erastus J. Howland, John Bean Johnson, Andrew Cummings Johnson, Kelt, James Morgan, Calvin Sanders, David Sanders, Wats?n Sanders, William Sanders, John Sexton, John Scott, Samuel Sixkiller, Joseph Smallwood, John Smith, Lewis Stansel, Martin Butler Sturdivant, Ezekiah Taylor, John Thornton, William H. Thornton, Timothy Trott, Walter Duncan West, Stephen Whitmire, Benjamin C. Wilborn, Harrison Williams, Robert Wottord, John Martin, Charles W. Starr, James Starr, Joseph McMinn Starr, Jr., Walter Adair Starr, Benjamin Fisher William Eubanks, Jeremiah Horn, George Noisywater, Johnson Watts, William Lafayette Trott, Andrew Reese, George Reese, Murray Reese, Caleb Wright. Hugh Montgomery Adair, Benjamin Franklin Adair, James Adair, Jessse M. Adair, John Bell Adair, George Washington Adair, Oscar Fitzaland Adair, Rufus Bell Adair, George Alberty, Joshua Alberty, John Alberty, Bailey Bacon, John Ellis Bean, Joseph McMinn Bean, James Lafayette Bigby, Thomas W. Bigby, David McLaughlin Beck, John Beck, James Bell, John Bell. Benjamin Jackson Bigby, William Edwin Brown, George Overs, Nicholas Byers, James Chandler, George George, James Choate, James Collins, William Collins, Harry Crittenden, William Daniel, Georoe Davis, John Davis, William Henry Davis, James Devine, Harlin Eaton, Richard Eaton, Samuel Foreman, Thomas Gallagher, Benjamin Franklin Goss, Dennis Gonzales, John Grirtin, Oliver Hogg, Philip Inlow, Sylvester Inlow, James Johnson, Shade Kagle, Jesse Killian, James R. Lamar, Gatz Lewis, Joseph Martin Lynch, Richard Mayes, John Walker Maytield, Alfred Miller, Joshua Morgan, Lone Morgan, Mark Morgan, George Reese, Charles Sanders, George Seabolt, Jeremiah Seabolt, Charles Washington Starr, Ellis Starr, James Starr, Allison Woodville Timberlake and John Vickery.

Company H.

Captain John Thompson Mayes, First l.t. Daniel McKizzick, Secord Lt. William Catterson, Third Lt. William H. Hendron, Orderly Sergeant John Stewart. Privates: William Ballard, George ButTing- ton, Frank Conseen, Michael Davis, Maxwell Dixon, Green Graham, J. B. Graham, John Graham, John Golston, Matthew Golston, Benjamin Harmon, James Harmon, Murphy Harmon, W. A. Y. Hastings, Joseph Hazlett, William Hazlett, Joel Bryan Mayes, William Henry Mayes, John Phillips, Sooter Phillips, William Phillips, John Rogers Stover, James Tucker, John West, James Wilson, George W. Snardy, Charles Webber, John Hogan and John L. Davis.

Company I.

Captains George W. Johnson and Bluford West Alberty, First Lts. James Benge and David McNair Faulkner, Second Lts. David McNair Faulkner and John Martin Bell, Third Lts. David McNair Faulkner, Orderly Sergeants William Myers and William Eubanks. Privates: Isaac Sanders, Thomas Pettit, John Faulkner, Wilson Sanders, John Stansil, Lewis Stansil, Buck Few, L. D. Chambers, Lewis Robards, Watt Downing, Shorey Pack, John Seminole, Robert Sanders, James Colby, Andrew Waters, John Walker Mayfield, Alexander McCoy Rider, William R. Foreman, William Eubanks, Charles Foreman, Joshua Sanders, Cornelius Sanders, Berry Price, John Price, John Hinman, Seven Fields, John Vanita, Josephus Simco, Bose Simco, George W. Alberty, William Butler, Cicero M. Cunningham, Charles A. Fargo, John Bell Adair, John Brown Harlan, Jesse Clinton Alberty, William McCracken, Lock Langley, Walter Scott Agnew, Joel McDaniel, Robert McDaniel, Samuel Foreman, Richard Pate, Cornelius Clyne, James Trott or Badger, Creek Pigeon, Creek Liver, Robert Waters, Amos Price, John Gafford, Jesse Gafford, George Smoker, John H. Baugh and Joseph Wyatt.

Company K.

Captain John Spears, First Lt. Foster, Second Lt. Lewis Weaver, Third Lt. Thomas Wilkerson. Privates: John W. Bumgarner, Samuel Hair, John Hair and Joseph Vann.

Company L. 

Captain James Thompson.

Shortly after the formation of the First Cherokee Mounted Rifles: Joel Mayes Byran organized and became Major of Bryan’s Battalion. 

Captain C. C. Waters, First Lt. Jasper Wilkerson, Second Lt. James Chambers Yeargain, Third Lt. Daniel Herron, Orderly Sergeant Mal Banks. Privates: David Copeland, George Sullivan, Henry Ward, William Ward. Lewis Baker, Wallace Brown, John Banks, George Banks, George Buchanan, Jefferson Cordell. Charles Baker, John Baker. Frank Davis, John Edwards, Samuel Gamble, Augustus Gailey, Joseph Galley, Lucien Gailey, Warren Gailey, Randolph Gallion, William Clark, William Grinder, Caleb Gillett, David Holt, George Holt, Henry Holt, William Latta, Matthew Latta, Henry Lukens Alexander McCall, James Patton, Henderson Rotrammel, Henry Rotrammel, James Rotrammel, John Rotrammel, Wilson Rotrammel, George Russell, Joseph Shelton, P. N. Thomas, Samuel Shelton, Monroe Smith, Robert Vinyard, George De Shields Ward and William Wilkerson. 
Captain John R. Harden and First Lt. William Hendron. Private: Jacob M. Hiser. Captain William Shannon. 

First Cherokee Mounted Volunteers – Colonel Stand Watie, Lieutenant Colonel Robert Calvin Parks, Major Joseph Franklin Thompson, Quartermaster John Lynch Adair, Surgeon Dr. William J. Dupree, Chaplain John Harrell.

Second Cherokee Mounted Volunteers – Colonel William Penn Adair, Lieutenant Colonel James Madison Bell and later O. H. P. Brewer, Major Porter Hammock succeeded by John R. Harden, Quartermaster Joel Bryan Mayes, Commissary C. S. Lynch, Surgeon Dr. Waldemar Lindsley and Chaplain John Harrell. Shortly after the organization of the Second Cherokee Mounted Volunteers Moses Frye organized a battalion and became its Major, he was succeeded by Joseph Absalom Scales.

Fragmentary rosters are as follows:

Captain John W. (“Scoy”) Brown, became demented and succeeded by E. G. Smith and later by John Gunter Scrimsher. First Lts. E. G. Smith. John Gunter Scrimsher and Dempsey Handle. Second Lt. Dempsey Handle, and Dumplin O’Fields, Third Lt. William Parrott, Orderly Sergeants John Anthony Foreman and Clark Charlesworth Lipe. Privates: John Chambers Jr., Joseph Chambers, George Davis, Deerham, Richard Fool, William Fool, Looney Hicks, Hogshooter, Jack Justice, Watie Lafabre, Talet Morgan, Johnson O’Fields, Tetenahi, Henry Covel, John Kickup, Joseph Turnover and George Runabout. (In calling the roll orderly sergeant Lipe always finished with “Kickup, Turnover and Runabout.” )

Captain James Leon Butler, First Lt. Clement Vann Rogers, Second Lt. John Talala Kell, Third Lt. William Henry Mayes. Privates: Lucien Burr Bell, Daniel O’Conner Kell, Joseph Kell, Lewis Ross Kell, Robert Due Knight, Thomas Rogers Knight, James L. McLaughlin, Thomas McLaughlin, Thomas Lewis Rogers, Rogers Stover, Saladin Watie, Robert Fite, Henry Shaw, Joseph Landrum, Calvin Miller, Bevelly Bean Hickey, Bailey Bacon Thomas Bacon, John Calhoun West, William M. West, George West, John Gunter Scrimsher, Robert Mann, Rufus Montezuma Morgan, Calvin Jones Hanks, Talet Morgan, Benjamin Franklin Adair, Green Parris, Charles H. Campbell, Robert Taylor Hanks, John Chambers Jr. and Maxwell Chambers. Butler’s company was probably in the organization at Ft. Wayne in July, 1861″

Captain Benjamin Wisner Carter, First Lt. Richard Carter, Second Lt. Johnson Fields, Third Lt. Catcher Teehee. Privates: Seaborn F. Tyner, Reuben Bartley Tyner, Abraham Woodall, Ezekial Bolin, Walter Bolin, Simon Boynton, John Ross Carter, Charles Coody, Millard Filmore, Joseph Freshower Joseph Hedricks, William Hedricks, Isaac Keys, Looney Keys. Monroe Keys, Sanuiel H. Keys. Samuel Houston Mayes, Worcester McCoy, Lewis Clark Ramsey, Randolph Riley, Samuel A. Riley, Antoine Rosters, Andrew Tyner, Daniel Teehee, Georg-e Teehee, John Teehee and Thomas Teehee. Possibly a company of the First Cherokee Mounted Volunteers.

Captain John Childers, First Lt. Samuel Lee and Second Lt. Ellis Sanders. This was prohahly a company of Frye’s Battallion.

Captain John Porum Davis, First Lt. Charles Drew, Second Lt. James Christopher McCoy, Third Lt. John Q. Hayes, Orderly Sergeant Richard Neal, Second Sergeant John Evans, Third Sgt. Teesee Guess, Fourth Sgt. Samuel Campbell, Fifth Sergeant Heavy Butler, First Corporal George Downing, Second Corp. John Poorbear, Third Corp. Albert P. Shepherd, Fourth Corp. Thomas O. Bowles. Privates: George Arnold, Joe Ashes, James Applegate, George Bowles, James Bowles, Johnson Bowles, Samuel Bowles, Badger, Johnson Baldridge, David Barberry, Isaac W. Bertholf, Robin Bob, John Butterfield, Cahlahhoola, Chunarchur, Crane, David Davis, Small Dirt, David Downing, Edward Downing, Joseph Downing, Benjamin Ellis, Lafayette ElHs, Stand Foreman, Flyingaway, Buck Girty, Simon Girty, Buflalo Garves, James Griftin, William Griffin, David Harris, Nathan Hicks, Walter Jackson, John Kettle, Allen Latta, Hercules T. Martin, John Miller, George Morris, Daniel McCoy, W. S. McCoy, David McLaughlin, Oolskunee, Oowalooka, Joseph Ore, Satanka, Joseph Shepherd, William Shepherd, George Smoker, Splitnose, Ellis Starr, Ezekial Starr, George Starr, Tobacco John, James Starr, James Starr, George Sunshine, Allison Woodville Timberlake, David Vann, Jesse Vann, Monkey Vann, Yartunnah Vann, Thomas Watts and Reuben Williams. 
Captain William Eckridge First Lt. Thomas Jefferson McGee, Second Lt. Lewis Rogers, Third Lt. Albert McGee, Orderly Sergeant Dr. Charles H. Preston. Privates: David Bashears, Elap, George Broughill, David Burkett, John Beamer, Joseph Bledsoe, Lorenzo Bledsoe, John Caldwell, Ellis Dick, Isaac Dick, Dick Duck, John Duck, Ezekial (“Bud”) Fields, Ezekial Fields, George Washinglon Fields, George Fields, Henry Fields, Matthew Fields, Thompson Fields, George Frazier, John Brown Harlan, Samuel G. Heflington, Scott Hunt, Calvin Jackson, Harvey Jackson, Benjamin King, Samuel Kinkade, Charles Lisenbe, Washington Lisenbe, Bee Marshall, John Mathis, David A. McGee, John McMurtrey, Solomon Moore, Oliver Morris, Wilson Muskrat, David Pogue, George Raper, John L. Rogers, Joseph Rogers. Shotpouch, Frank Simms. William Stover Ticanooly, George Washington Trout, George Washington Walker, Vann Ward, Hill Wilkerson and Albert Morris. This company was probably first a part of Bryan’s Battallion and later (Co. D) of the Second Cherokee Mounted Volunteers.

Captain John W. Fagan.
Captain Richard Fields, First Lt. Moses Edwards, Second Lt. Bevelly Bean Hickey, Orderly Sergeant Coon Vann. Privates: George (“Buck- skin”) Waters, Sunday Hogtoter, Benjamin Fisher, Hogstoter, George Waters, Yartunna Proctor, Tetenahi, Benjamin King, Dreadfulwater, Lorenzo D. Chambers, John Quincy A. Smith, William Henry Mayes, Robert McLemore and Thomas Henry Still.

Captain Alexander Foreman.

Captain Roswell W. Lee. First Lts. Henry Forrester and J. W. Gregg, Second Lts. William Taylor and Riley Wise Lindsey, Orderly Sergeants John Reese, Taylor Clark and John R. Vann. Privates: Lee Silk, Thomas Peter, Brush, Charles Hicks, Rider Cloud, William Crane, William Womack, John Polk, Robert Barnard, James Brower, McCoy Smith, George W. Alberty, Arseena, Samuel Benge, Alonzo Bledsoe, Thomas Bigby, James Crittenden. John Doghead, J. Hilary Clark, John Campeau, Richard Hurd, John Marshall Isaac Proctor, Ootlenowi, Ice Nitts, William Phillips, James Seymour, Ketcher Solomon, Bailey Bacon, John Bacon. William Taylor, J. Riley Baker, Cap Edwards, William Walker and William Deadrick. This was an artillery com- pany. They got their battery; three twelve pound howitzers and a 2.25 pound brass rifle, early in 1863. One twelve pounder lost in Elk Creek after the battle of Honey Springs and found by the federals while searching for dead. Three other guns were added but their sources not known. One gun bursted by over charging at the capture of the Steamer J. R. Williams on June 15, 1864 and the others were surrendered to the United States at the close of the war.

Captain Moses C. Frye. First Lt. John Childers, Second Lt. William Alexander and John Edward Gunter, Third Lt. William Barnes. Privates: Charles A. Fargo Isaac Sanders, John Price, Thomas Jefferson Carter. Samuel Candy and. Ellis Sanders. This is probably the same company that was commanded by John Childers after Captain Frye organized and became Major of the battalion.
Captain Sajnuel Gunter, First Lt. William Alexander, Second Lt. Calvin Jones Hanks, Third Lt. Rufus Bell Adair. Orderly Sergeant Robert Taylor Hanks. Privates: Felix N. Witt, John Bell Adair, Samuel Candy. John Edward Gunter, Stephen N. Carlile, George Washington Fields, Charles Jones, Matthew Jones. James Ussrey, Philip Ussrey , Tobe Ussrey. Lock Langley, John Price, Allen Matthis, William McCracken, Robert Alexander, John Poorhear, John Candy, Henderson Holt, John Gafford, George Smoker, John Lafayette Brown, David Ussrey, William Ussrey, John H. Shanks, Charles Harmon, Buck Elmo. Jeflerson Eldridge, George Yates, Moses Edwards, Seven Fields, Bertie Simmons, Keekee Gunter. Jesse Galiord, Jolly Colwell, Samuel Wheeler, Moses Holt. Joseph Perdue, John Perdue, John Frazell. John Gonzales, Snake Puppy, William Johnson and Benjamin Johnson.

Captain Charles Holt, First Lts. Montgomery Morgan and Squire Baldridge. Second Lts. John D. Alberty and Jack Miller, Orderly Sergeants James Reed and Coon Vann, Privates: Stephen N. Carlile, Charles Jones, James Ussrey, George Reese, Stephen Whitmire, George (“Buckskin”) Waters, Samuel Payne, John Marshall, Little Leach, Charles Hicks. Arseena Vann, Abraham Lmcoln, J. L. McCorkle and William Lowrey, Captain Richard O’Fields, First Lt. Johnson O’Fields, Gaptains Thomas Jefferson Parks and John W. Fagan, First Lt. John W. Fagan. Privates: John Pinkney Chandler, Aanm Head Beck and Releford Beck.

Captain Clement Vann Rogers, First Lt. Joseph Martin Lynch. Second Lt. Thomas Lewis Rogers, Third Lt. Henry Chambers. Orderly Sergeant Robert McDaniel. Privates: Richard Griffin, Daniel Webster Vann, Napoleon Bonapart Rogers, Isaac Howell, John Hair, John W. Bumgarner, Caleb Wright, Virgil Crawford, Joseph Rogers, Antoine Rogers, Maxwell Chambers. Joseph Martin Hildebrand, Hilary Clark. Thomas Hubbard. Wilkerson Hubbard, Reuben Finley, Moses McDaniel, James Beavert, Lemuel Smith, John O’Reiley and Joseph H. Bennett.

Captain Joseph Sniallwood.

Captain John M. Smith. First Lt. Edward Foreman, Second Lt. Heman, Lincoln Foreman, Third Lt. Martin Buzzardflopper. Orderly Sergeant Looney Tiger. Privates: Richard L. Martin. John Palmer, Moses Williams and Nelson McDaniel
Captain John W. T. Spencer. First Lt. Robert McDaniel, Second Lt. James Beavert, Third Lt. Randolph Coker, Orderly Sergeant Daniel Webster Vann. Privates: Houston Allen, John Bell, John Boot, James Cannon. Virgil Crawford, David Cogswell, Archibald Elliott, George W. Elliott. James Elliott, Walter Elliott. Jefferson Gage, John Gritfin, Alexander Gordon. Wiley McNair Guilliams, William Hicks, Daniel O’Conner Kelt, Joseph KelL Richard L. Martin, Nelson McDaniel, David McLaughlin. Ezekial McLaughlin. John McNulty, John McPherson, John Palmer, John Poorbear, James Benjamin Franklin Rogers, James Spencer, Napoleon Bonapart Rogers, Claybourne Taylor, Andrew Townsend. Reuben R. Tyner. Bryan Ward, James Ward, John Ward, James Williams. John Williams, Moses Williams, John Witt and William McCracken.

Captain James Stewart, First Lt. Catterson, Second Lt. George W. Snardy. Third Lt. Newton Swinney, Orderly Sergeant John Anderson. Privates: James Brower, Frank Bryan. Jack Bryan. Samuel Bryan, John Burns, John Campeau, John Campbell, Thomas Coffelt, John Crabtree, Thomas Eby, Charles Edmondson, N. B. Edmondson. George Washington Elliott, J. William Gregg. Daniel O’Conner Kell. Joseph Kell, Alexander L. Martin, Napoleon B. McCreary, John Nance, M. P. Snider, John Stotts, Joseph Lvnch Thompson. George Wagoner, Walter Adair West and James Yost.
Captains William Taylor and William Eubanks, First Lt. William Eubanks. Second Lt. George Reese. Third Lt. John Alexander.

Captain Hugh Tinnon, First Lt. Jeter Thompson Cunningham, Second Lt. William Evans, Third Lt. Joseph Ingle, Orderly Sergeant Patrick Patton. Privates: Hugh Abercrombie, Charles Barney, Henry Baumister, John Bradshaw, John Brickey, William Brickey, Mitchell Blevins, Ransom Blevins Thompson Blevins, John Abercrombie, Lafayette Abercrombie, Freeman Authur, John Chastain, Chuwanosky, Henry Coats, John Coats, James Coleman, William Compton, Alexander Copeland, Austin Copeland. Andrew Countryman, George Countryman. John Countryman. Samuel Countryman, David Denton, Jack Dickey, Edward Evans, Lewis Fair, James Sanford Fields. Moses Fields, Robert Francis. Henry Gates, William Green, Richard Holland. William Howell, John Ingle, Thomas Ingle, John Ishell, Columbus Isbell, Chapman Johnson, Thomas Johnson, Elijah Keith, John Keith, Thomas Keywood, William Keywood. Thomas King, Samuel Kirkpatrick, Henrry Louks, P. G. Lynch. Charles McFadden. Telia McFadden. Thomas McFadden, Samuel McPhail, Marshall McSpadden, John O’Bryan, Shipman Reed, John Rhea, John Rogers, Samuel C. Sager, John Smith, Elisha Stover, Rogers Stover, John Calhoun Sturdivant, Zimerhew Thomas, James Tinnon, William Tinnon, Stephen Walker, David White, James White and Marion White. 
Captain John Shepherd Vann. First Lt. Walker Carey. Private Calvin Jones Hanks.

Captain Charles E. Watie, First Lt. Wilson Suagee. Second Lt. Samuel Mush, Third Lt. John Maw. Privates: John Ketcher, Alfred Pigeon, Logan Pigeon, Jack Pigeon, Stand Suagee and Ezekial Beck.

Captain Erastus Howland. First Lt. Knight. Second Lt. Boone, Third Lt. Antoine LaHay. Privates: Heman Lincoln Foreman, Alexander McCoy Rider and Riley J. Keys.
Captain William H. Turner, First Lt. Antoine LaHay. Second Lt. Return Jonathan Foreman, William W. Bark, Orderly Sergeant Jacob Markham. Privates: Amos Foreman, Squataleechee, William Cochran, Carter Daniel Markham, George Foreman. Lewis Cochran, John Cochran, Henry Blalock, George Arseena, J. P. Blackstone, Joseph Bledsoe, Littlebird, Samuel Cochran, Charles Cochran Sr., Charles Cochran Jr., John S. Coats, Wilson Cordery, Thomas Cordery, James Davis Sr., James Davis Jr., W. A. Dennison, Jackson Foreman, Looney Downing. Thomas Harvingston. George W. Kirk, John Inlow, Charles Jumper, Robert Kanard, John LaHay. John Mosley. John Martin Miller, Andrew Miller, Washington Miller. Robert J. Mann. Wilson Muskrat, James Proctor, Nelson Proctor, Johnson Thomas, Thomas C. Thomas, James Winifield, Ulrich Waldron, Samuel Wisner, James Wortham, John O’Reilly, Charles Hillen and William C. Daniel.

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